On December 14, 1825 (December 26, New Style), when the guard regiments in St. Petersburg were to swear allegiance for the second time in rapid succession, this time to Nicholas, liberal conspirators staged what came to be known as the Decembrist rebellion. 16, pp. He was under the protection of the French secret police as well as by a small number of faithful Cossack retainers. For his reactionary policies, he has been called the emperor who froze Russia for 30 years. But on the day the oath of allegiance to Nicholas was meant to take place, a group of young army officers – later known as Decembrists – attempted a coup. The tragic deaths of both were seen by many, at least in part, as a result of the Czar’s hounding. On the other hand, many miscreants, petty criminals and undesirables were punished by local officials by enlisting them for life in the Army. Nicholas was left severely shaken by huge military losses. Fighting around Lake Van swung back and forth, but ultimately proved inconclusive. Such quick inspection tours later became almost an obsession with the emperor. Yet, on closer acquaintance, the other side of the emperor emerged. He was briefly recognized as Tsar, Emperor of Russia in 1922 in areas controlled by the White Armies movement in the Russian Far East. But his reign ended in a massive military disaster. The news came as a shock.

Buoyed by his role in suppressing the revolutions of 1848 and his mistaken belief that he had British diplomatic support, Nicholas moved against the Ottomans, who declared war on Russia on 8 October 1853. The smallest unit of length originates from the word verkh (“top”), so historians incline to the view that a vershok was equivalent to the main joint of the thumb or index finger of a grown man. [21] The universities were small and closely monitored, especially the potentially dangerous philosophy departments.

The solemn wedding followed some 20 months later, on July 13, 1817. The unit subsequently came to be defined as seven English feet. [45] For Nicholas the worst sort of characters were nobility who supported liberalism, and when the duc d'Orleans become the king of the French as Louis Philippe I in the July revolution of 1830, Nicholas took this as a personal betrayal, believing his friend had gone over as he saw it to the dark side of revolution and liberalism. The most notorious case was Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov, a competent brigade commander in the Imperial Army who proved himself out of his depth as a Navy minister. [43] Even before the Poles rose up, Nicholas had cancelled his plans for invading Belgium as it became clear that neither Britain nor Prussia would join in while the French openly threatened war if Nicholas should march.

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