The Euskal Herritarrok was favoured by the PNV but decided to abandon the Basque Parliament, leaving the latter in a political minority. Following the approval of the Spanish constitution in 1978, a Statute of Autonomy was promulgated and approved in referendum. This participation – complemented by the address of Pope John Paul to the United Nations (1995), where it is stated that the phenomenon of ethnicity ;lsquo;must not be underestimated or regarded as a simple left-over of the past’ but conversely ‘[…. ]

The coalition was the beginning of the political party Herri Batasuna, which would become the main political front of the Basque National Liberation Movement. From that moment on, the regime became tougher in their struggle against ETA: many members died in shootouts with security forces and police carried out big raids, such as the arrest of hundreds of members of ETA in 1975, after the infiltration of a double agent inside the organisation.[38]. [62] In 2008, Falange y Tradición, a new Spanish far-right nationalist group appeared, carrying out dozens of attacks in the Basque Country. However, the significance of the Catholic faith in Basque nationalist expression led to another fundamental reaction, as it preceded the intervention of Pope John XXI, in the Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris (1963).

Whichever of these may be the case, an understanding of the historical relations between the Basque provinces and the Spanish and French states is indispensable in order to explain the present conflict."[20]. [96], Donostia-San Sebastián International Peace Conference, Basque National Liberation Movement Prisoners, International Contact Group (Basque politics).

This is a giant online mental map that serves as a basis for concept diagrams. Although this killing was attributed by Ernest Lluch to ETA in 2000, as revealed in El País,[76] the attack was committed by the DRIL (Directorio Revolucionario Ibérico de Liberación). The first moment follows the most intense attack against civilians in 1987, when the political parties decided to enter into talks with one another, motivating ETA and the government to discuss the problems of the Basque Country, such as: the Pact of Madrid (1987), the Pact of Ajuria Enea (1988), the Pact of Ardanza (1988), and the Pact of Navarra (1988). The GAL were active from 1983 until 1987, a period referred to as the Spanish Dirty War. The weaknesses in the process of Spanish state-building – to which Basque nationalism is inextricably linked – constitute an elementary foundation to understand the principles of ETA (1959), as a terrorist organisation, and the nature of the nationalist identities involved in the conflict. This racial stance has implications for immigrants wishing to come and work in the Basque region. between Catalonia and the Basque Country. The raid came months before the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, with which ETA tried to gather worldwide attention with massive attacks around Catalonia.



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